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Wednesday, 10 June 2020

An Essay about Water pollution

An Essay about Water pollution 

Water pollution is one of the biggest hazards in India.  Its biggest source is untreated sewage water.  It looks clear.  One does not have to work too hard to see it.  There are many other sources of pollution as well.  For example, water from farms, water from small and uncontrolled industries.  The situation is so severe that there is no water source left in India which is not polluted at all.  The reality is that more than 80 percent of the country's water sources have become highly polluted.  Among them, those water sources are more polluted, around which a large population lives.  The Ganges and Yamuna are one of the most polluted rivers in India
Due to the harmful side effects of pollutants on water quality, polluted water is no longer eligible for domestic, commercial, industrial agriculture or any other common use.

 In addition to drinking, household, irrigation, agricultural work, use of cattle, industrial and commercial activities etc. consumes large amounts of water and the water used is converted into contaminated water after use.  As a residue in this contaminated water, during the activities carried out through them, the parts of substances or chemicals in contact with water are left.  Their presence makes the water unsuitable for use.  When this contaminated water is found in a clean water source, it also contaminates it.  The contaminated water contains viruses, bacteria and other harmful micro-organisms along with organic and inorganic compounds and chemicals which pollute the waters according to their nature.

Pollution of water sources occurs in two ways: -

 1. Pollution through point source
 2. Pollution through Wide Source

 1. Pollution through point source: -

 When contaminated water comes out of a certain system of action and gets directly into the water source, it is called point source water pollution.  In this, the nature and quantity of contaminated water found in the water source is known.  Therefore, the pollution level can be reduced by treating this contaminated water.  That is, point source water pollution can be reduced.  Examples are the discharge of an industrial unit directly into a water source through a contaminated water pipe, mixing of domestic contaminated water into a pond or river through a drain or drain.

 2. Wide source water pollution: -

 When the contaminated water generated during many human activities is found in a source by different means, it is called wide source water pollution.  Due to coming from different mediums, it is not possible to collect and treat them together.  Such as industrial and domestic contaminated water in rivers or coming through different means.

 The pollutant points of different waters are also different.

 1. Rivers: - Where the industrial contaminated water is found in the rivers through various drains, the domestic water is also immersed in it through drains etc.  Also, fertilizers, pesticides and soil effluents along with the flow of water are also found in the rivers.

 2. Pollution of seawater: - All the rivers eventually meet in the oceans.  So they are definitely polluted through them.  Through the rivers, industrial contaminated water and sewage, pesticides, fertilizers, heavy metals, plastics etc. are found in the sea.  Apart from these, maritime pollution also occurs due to maritime activities such as sea transport, exploitation of petroleum products from the sea, etc.

 Only by observing the physical condition of the watershed can they be estimated to be polluted.  The increase in the number of aquatic weeds along with the color of the water, its smell, taste etc., decrease or death in the number of aquatic organisms such as fish and other animals, floating oily material on the surface, etc. are signs of water pollution.  Sometimes water may be contaminated even if these symptoms are not present, such as acid or alkaline discharge or mixing in water bodies or meteorites of metallic pollutants.  Chemical analysis of water is mandatory to detect such pollutants.

 The nature of substances that pollute water is mainly of two types -

 1. Biologically perishable
 2. Biologically non-perishable

 Primarily all organic matter pollutants are biologically perishable.  These pollutants are destroyed by micro-organisms present in the water.  In fact, organic materials are the food of microbes.  These activities of micro organisms use large amounts of dissolved oxygen in water.  This is the reason that when organic matter pollutants such as sewage or contaminated water of distillation industry are found in the watershed, there is a significant decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen, in many cases, aquatic organisms such as fish etc. lack oxygen  Are killed due to

 Conversely, there are many pollutants that are not destroyed under normal conditions, such pollutants contain various metallic pollutants or inorganic salts.

 Some of the major pollutants are: -

 1. Sewage or other oxygen absorbent pollutants such as organic waste.
 2. Contaminants of infectious nature such as waste from hospitals.
 3. Fertilizers used for agricultural work, due to which water is found, there is a tremendous increase in the number of aquatic plants.  Subsequently, these aquatic vegetation rotting in water gradually reduces or eliminates the use of dissolved oxygen in the water.  In this way, due to rotting of vegetation, deodorant starts coming from the water.
 4. Various chemicals, salts or metallic contaminated water, along with industrial contaminated water, are found in water bodies.
 5. Chemical pesticides etc. used in agricultural work also mix with rainwater when coming to sources.  These complex organic compounds are carcinogenic (carcinogenic) in nature.
 6. Many radiation substances also flow with water and are found in natural waters.
 7. The temperature of contaminated water coming out of many industries like distillation industry, power plant etc. is very high.  Contaminated water with high temperature, combined with any water, increases its temperature.  Which has a direct effect on aquatic organisms and flora.
 8. Domestic solid wastes also cause major pollution of water.
 Water pollutant factors can also be divided into three categories based on their physical condition: -

 1. Depending on the suspended state in water: - Many water pollutants remain suspended in water.  The size of these particles is more than one micro meter.  They are suspended in the water and they sit down when the water is stagnant or stable for some time.  They are easily filtered and separated.

 2. Making colloidal state with water: - Some small size particles from suspended particles come into colloidal state with water.  These pollutants cannot be separated from the normal filtering process, because their particles are so small that they pass through the filtration medium.

 3. Dissolved Pollutants: - Many pollutants dissolve well in water.  Such pollutants cannot be separated by normal filtration process.  These can be separated by chemical methods only after the action of other reactants.

 Apart from sewage, industrial contaminated water is also a major factor in polluting natural waters.  Various scientists, environmentalists and chemists have divided them into different categories based on water pollutants.  Ferguson has classified them into seven categories which include sewage, carcinogens, pollutants, organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, solid wastes, radiation substances and high heat generating pollutants.  Similarly, in 1972, they were classified based on their physical and chemical properties and divided them into 10 categories.  On this basis, they are characterized by their acidicity or alkalinity, the concentrations of minerals present in them, the amount of suspended particles, the tendency to use dissolved oxygen, the amount of dissolved organic matter, the amount of organic chemicals, the toxicity of pollutants, the presence of pathogenic germs, the chemical.  The presence of chemicals containing compounds such as nitrogen and phosphorus and very high temperatures.

 Peter also studied the nature of these pollutants and the adverse effects on the environment due to them.  We can categorize it as follows: -
Insecticide or Biocidal: -
 There are many pests in our ecosystem;  Those who depend on flora or botanical products.  In addition to insects, parasitic bacteria or viruses that grow on crops are also found in large numbers.  When pests or other parasites attack the crops, the entire crop is licked on sight.  In order to save crops from these, pesticides are sprayed on crops as necessary.

 Most chemicals used as pesticides are complex organic compounds.  Most such compounds are carcinogenic to organic matter.  These chemicals are sprayed on the surface of plants by spraying them.  During rainy days, when the plants are watered, these chemicals dissolve in the water, or form colloidal solutions with water.  In both the states, they come out in the water source and they contaminate it and make it harmful.
 In addition to the fluid wastes from industries, chemicals used in various activities or the water generated from them also contain harmful substances.  These soluble or insoluble substances combined in water sources make it contaminated or unfit for drinking.  We will briefly discuss some of these.

Causes of water pollution in India

 The biggest cause of water pollution in India is urbanization and its uncontrolled rate.  In the last decade, the rate of urbanization has increased at a very fast pace or we can also say that this urbanization has left an indelible mark on the water resources of the country.  This has caused many environmental problems for a long period.  Among them are the lack of water supply, pollution of water and its collection.  Disposal and treatment of polluted water is a major issue in this regard.  There are many cities and towns near the rivers, which have left no stone unturned to increase these problems.

 Uncontrolled urbanization in these areas is producing sewage water.  In urban areas, water from rivers, ponds, canals, wells and lakes is used for domestic and industrial needs.  80 percent of our domestic use is water degraded.  In most cases water treatment is not good and thus pollutes the fresh water flowing on the surface of the ground.

 This polluted water passes through the surface and is also poisoning the ground water.  According to an estimate, 16,662 million liters of waste water a day is released in cities with more than one lakh population.  Surprisingly, 70 percent of the people of these cities have access to sewage.  Cities and towns on the banks of the river Ganga produce about 33 percent of the country's poor water.
The major reasons for the increasing level of water pollution in India are as follows:

 1- Industrial Garbage
 2- Improper activities in agriculture
 3- Reduction in water quality of rivers flowing in the plains
 4- Social and religious customs, such as shedding bodies in the water, bathing, throwing garbage
 5- Oil spill from ships
 6- Acid rain (acid rain)
 7- Global warming
 8- Eutrophication
 9- Inadequate arrangement for disposal of industrial waste
 10- Denitrification
Effects of water pollution in India:

 The water source whose water is polluted even a little, water pollution has an adverse effect on every life living around it.  Polluted water at a certain level also proves harmful to crops.  This reduces the fertilizer potential of the land.  Overall, agriculture also affects the region and the country.  When sea water is polluted, it also has a bad effect on marine life.  The biggest cause of water pollution is the decline in water quality.  Many diseases can occur due to its consumption.

 The reality is that water pollution is one of the major reasons for the low level of health in India, especially in rural areas.  Polluted water can cause diseases like cholera, TB, diarrhea, jaundice, vomiting-diarrhea.  In India, 80 percent of the patients suffering from stomach disorders have become ill due to drinking polluted water.

 Solution of water pollution in India

 The best solution to water pollution is not to let it happen.  The most important solution is conservation of soil.  Water is also polluted due to soil erosion.  In such a situation, if the soil is conserved then we can prevent water pollution to some extent.  We can stop soil erosion by planting as many plants or trees as possible.  You can adopt farming methods that worry about soil fertility and improve it instead of spoiling it.  Along with this, it is also very important to adopt the right methods of disposal of toxic waste.  Initially, we do not use or reduce products that contain organic compounds that harm them.  Safe disposal of water is essential in cases where paints, sanitation and stain erasing chemicals are used.  It is also important to pay attention to the leakage of oil from cars or other machines.

 It is said that the leakage of oil from the cars or machines is also one of the major factors of water pollution.  Because of this it is extremely important to take care of cars and machines.  It should be regularly observed that there is no leakage of oil.  After the completion of the work - especially in factories and factories in which oil is used - care must be taken in cleaning the bad oil or keeping it for safe disposal or use later.  Here we are giving below some ways, through which this problem can be overcome:

 1- Cleaning of waterways and beaches
 2- Do not use biologically perishable materials like plastics
 3- Work on ways to reduce water pollution.

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